Tuesday, October 21, 2008

Child development

Child development refers to the biological and psychological changes that occur in human beings between birth and the end of adolescence, as the individual progresses from dependency to increasing autonomy. Because these developmental changes may be strongly influenced by genetic factors and events during prenatal life, genetics and prenatal development are usually included as part of the study of child development. Related terms include "developmental psychology", referring to development throughout the lifespan and "pediatrics", the branch of medicine relating to the care of children. Developmental change may occur as a result of genetically-controlled processes known as maturation, or as a result of environmental factors and learning, but most commonly involves an interaction between the two.Age-related development terms are: newborn (ages 0–1 month); infant (ages 1 month – 1 year); toddler (ages 1–3 years); preschooler (ages 4–6 years); school-aged child (ages 6–13 years); adolescent (ages 13–18).However, organizations like Zero to Three and the World Association for Infant Mental Health use the term infant as a broad category, including children from birth to age 3, a logical decision considering that the Latin derivation of the word infant refers to those who have no speech, The optimal development of children is considered vital to society and so it is important to understand the social, cognitive, emotional, and educational development of children. Increased research and interest in this field has resulted in new theories and strategies, with specific regard to practice that promotes development within the school system. In addition there are also some theories that seek to describe a sequence of states that comprise child development. cb08047

Jokes for everybody...

Title: I Want to Buy That....A blond goes into a nearby store and asks a clerk if she can buy the TV in the corner.The clerk looks at her and says that he doesn't serve blonds, so she goes back home and dyes her hair black.The next day she returns to the store and asks the same thing, and again, the clerk said he doesn't serve blonds.Frustrated, the blond goes home and dyes her hair yet again, to a shade of red .Sure that a clerk would sell her the TV this time, she returns and asks a different clerk this time.To her astonishment, this clerk also says that she doesn't serve blonds.The blond asks the clerk, "How in the world do you know I am a blond?"The clerk looks at her disgustedly and says,"That's not a TV -- it's a microwave!"

5 Simple Rules to Beat Hunger...

Be Wary of WhiteSuch as white bread (73), bagels (72), Cream of Wheat (70), doughnuts (76) -- just about anything made with white refined flour.-Eat Healthy FatCook with olive and canola oil, snack on nuts, and make sandwiches with cheese, peanut butter or avocados.-Eat FiberThat means whole-grain breads (53), long-grain or brown rice (55), vegetables (most score low), fruit (unsweetened and unjuiced, it's fine).-Snack SmarterSkip jellybeans (80), Skittles (69), Lifesavers (70) in favor of Peanut M&M's (33), Snickers (55), Twix bars (44) or milk chocolate (34).-Think BalanceHaving a baked potato on the side won't hurt if it's served with a salad and salmon. It's the overall score of your meal that counts.


Eggs and Blood SugarIf there's one food that's developed an undeserved reputation over the years for being bad for your health, it's eggs. Let's reveal the realities. Eggs are an excellent, inexpensive source of high-quality protein -- so high, in fact, that egg protein is the gold standard nutritionists use to rank all other proteins. What makes the protein in eggs so superior? It contains all of the essential amino acids (the ones your body can't make on its own) in just the right proportions.Because they're all protein and fat, eggs have no impact on your blood sugar, making them a much better breakfast choice than, say, a stack of white-flour pancakes. And like all protein foods, they may help control your appetite by keeping you full longer. One study found that women who ate two eggs with toast at breakfast felt less hungry before lunch and ate significantly fewer calories during the rest of the day than those who ate a bagel and cream cheese that provided the same number of calories. Now, about eggs and cholesterol. Yes, it's true, eggs have a lot of it -- about 213 milligrams -- all in the yolk. It's also true that if you have diabetes, your heart health should be a top priority. But dozens of studies have found that it's saturated fat, not cholesterol, that has the greatest effect on blood cholesterol, so eating eggs in moderation is just fine. For people with elevated cholesterol or those who are especially sensitive to the cholesterol in foods (for some people, cholesterol levels do rise after eating a cholesterol-rich meal), experts recommend eating no more than three or four egg yolks a week. Egg whites, which contain no cholesterol, don't count. Health BonusEgg yolks are one of the few foods naturally rich in vitamin D, a much-needed vitamin that few of us get enough of. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and has recently been linked with lower risks of various cancers to boot. Eggs are also a surprisingly good source of bone-building vitamin K. Plus, they're loaded with lutein (the chickens get it from their feed), which helps protect against macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in older folks. Eggs also contain choline, a compound that animal studies suggest could help improve your memory as you age. Some studies found that giving extra choline to pregnant rats created better-functioning brain cells in their babies.

Feed your skin

What you put inside your body eventually shows on the outside. More than 100 dermatologists analyzed the skin of about 4,000 women ages 40 to 74. Then they looked at eating habits, weight, history of sun exposure, and whether the women had hit menopause.Anti-aging diet secrets the doctors uncovered:Vitamin C counts. Women with higher C intake, mostly from foods like orange juice, citrus fruits, and tomatoes (as opposed to supplements), had significantly fewer wrinkles. C is key in the formation of collagen, which repairs damage and keeps skin strong and elastic.Linoleic acid is protective. Those who ate plenty of this nutrient had skin that was less dry and fragile. Known to help skin maintain moisture, it's found in green leafy vegetables, nuts, and plant-based oils. Excess carbohydrates and fat speed the aging of skin. Women who consumed more carbs and fat had more wrinkles


It's common to feel frenzied with a busy schedule, but it's possible to enjoy life and thrive with a hectic lifestyle - if it's loaded with good stress, the kind that's energising and motivating. How do you tell good stress from bad?Stress that's goodFacing something with enough excitement to override any fears.Having a filled-to-the-brim schedule that still contains several activities that you look forward to and enjoy doing.Having more commitments that you care about - marriage, motherhood, valued employee and community volunteer.Working towards a valued goal and knowing that life will slow down once you achieve it.Feeling challenged...

Chocolate's secret

Remember that scene in the Woody Allen movie Sleeper in which Woody, who has been frozen for 200 years, wakes up to find that chocolate and banana cream pie are now health foods? Well, it's not so far-fetched.Chocolate is chock full of potent antioxidants called phenols, the same as those found in wine. In fact, a 1.5-ounce chocolate bar has as much antioxidant power as a 5-ounce glass of red wine. (White chocolate, which doesn't contain any cocoa solids, doesn't count.) And contrary to popular belief, chocolate contains only a very small amount of caffeine.More good news: One-third of the fat in chocolate is a cholesterol-friendly fat called stearic acid, and another third is an unsaturated fat called oleic acid. When Pennsylvania researchers (including some from the Mars candy company) had 23 people follow either the average American diet or the same diet supplemented with 22 grams of cocoa powder and 16 grams of dark chocolate, they found that the chocolate diet reduced LDL oxidation. If you're going to indulge:Choose dark. Dark chocolate contains more phenols than other forms of chocolate. Milk chocolate contains milk fat (palmitic acid) that is highly saturated. Semi-sweet chocolate has less fat than milk chocolate.Kill two birds. Dip strawberries into melted chocolate for a high-antioxidant snack that can easily satisfy one or two fruit servings. An easy way to get melted chocolate is to simply microwave semi-sweet chocolate chips on medium for about 30 seconds. Be sure the strawberries are complete dry before you dip.Go for quality. Buy the richest, creamiest chocolate you can afford. You'll be more satisfied with one piece of the good stuff than five pieces of the mediocre stuff.